history of tunisia

Register Military. Tunisia. The humid coastal plain in the east, running between the Gulf of Hammamet and the Gulf of Gabes, where Tunisia’s thriving olive plantations are found, is the most agriculturally productive of these coarse-textured soil areas. To the south of the Tunisian Dorsale lies a hilly region known as the Haute Steppe (High Steppes) in the west and the Basse Steppe (Low Steppes) in the east. Add to Wishlist. Updates? By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Farther south, streams are intermittent and largely localized in the form of wadis, which are subject to seasonal flooding and terminate inland in chotts. Tunis itself was located near the site of the ancient city-state of Carthage. pop. Tunisia. History Tunisia was settled by the Phoenicians in the 12th century B.C. By 1574, Tunisia was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire, whose control of the region, always tenuous, had all but dissolved by the 19th century. Carthage fought a series of wars with its rival, Rome. Brief History of Tunisia: Tunisia is the northern point of Africa. Eugene Roe; Project maintenance. Its coastline on the Mediterranean Sea made it the subject of many empires throughout history. The Phoenicians founded Carthage in Tunisia in the 8th century BC. On the political level the successful conclusion of the Tunisia Campaign left one Allied problem unsolved: factionalism among the French. The Tunisian Dorsale, or High Tell, a southwest-northeast–trending mountain range that is an extension of the Saharan Atlas (Atlas Saharien) of Algeria, tapers off in the direction of the Sharīk (Cape Bon) Peninsula in the northeast, south of the Gulf of Tunis. QUICK ADD. Emeritus Professor, Faculty of Letters and Human Sciences, University of Tunis. The major drainage feature of the north is the Majardah River, the country’s only perennially flowing stream, which cuts the Majardah valley before emptying into the Gulf of Tunis, near the site of ancient Carthage. Friday, January 14, 2011, became a new date and a specialchapter in the periodization of the history of Tunisia since independence,just like March 20, 1956 (Independence Day), or April 9, 1938.¹ This key1. Tunisia is the smallest of the Maghrib states and consequently the most cohesive. The final blow to Tunisia’s sovereignty came at the Congress of Berlin in 1878, when Britain acquiesced to France’s control of Tunisia. Rome prevailed in the mid-2nd century bce, razed Carthage, and ruled the region for the following 500 years. The Phoenicians marched into Tunisia around 1100 BC, establishing their capital, Carthage (just north of today’s Tunis), as the main power in the western Mediterranean by the 6th century. (For a discussion of political changes in Tunisia in 2011, see Jasmine Revolution.). Relief. In 1830, at the time of the French invasion of Algiers, Tunisia was officially a province of the Ottoman Empire but in reality was an autonomous state. The Glory Days of Carthage. A mean annual rainfall of about 60 inches (1,520 mm) occurs in the Kroumirie Mountains in northwestern Tunisia, making it the wettest region in North Africa, as compared with less than 4 inches (100 mm) at Tozeur (Tawzar) in the southwest. Harvests vary as a result, being poor in dry years. Explore. A small state with limited resources, Tunisia nonetheless managed to retain considerable autonomy within the framework of the larger empires that frequently ruled it from afar. Travel Destinations. Tunisia is bounded by Algeria to the west and southwest, by Libya to the southeast, and by the Mediterranean Sea to the east and north. Tunisia is situated in the warm temperate zone between latitudes 37° and 30° N. In the north the climate is Mediterranean, characterized by mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers with no marked intervening seasons. List of beys of Tunis. The summer is hot and dry in the north, and the winter is mild and consists of frequent rains. Saharan influences give rise to the sirocco, a seasonal hot, blasting wind from the south that can have a serious drying effect on vegetation. Continued civil disturbances and corruption prompted the British and French to force the bey to issue the Fundamental Pact (ʿAhd al-Amān; September 1857), a civil rights charter modeled on the Ottoman rescript of 1839. Tunisia, country of North Africa. Followers of Generals de Gaulle and Giraud were still unable to unite in a common cause. For a more detailed treatment of earlier periods and of the country in its regional context, see North Africa. During the 1990s the government sponsored the construction of a number of dams to control flooding, preserve runoff, and recharge the water table. 278,252 Pages. Farther south there is a series of chott (or shaṭṭ; salty lake) depressions. The vast majority of the population was Muslim, with a small Jewish minority. Because the principal military threat had long come from neighbouring Algeria, the reigning bey of Tunisia, Ḥusayn, cautiously went along with assurances from the French that they had no intention of colonizing Tunisia. With the help of Western advisers (mainly French), he created a modern army and navy and related industries. Occupying the eastern portion of the great bulge of North Africa, Tunisia is bounded on Kenneth Perkins's new edition of A History of Modern Tunisia carries the history of this country from 2004 to the present, with particular emphasis on the Tunisian revolution of 2011 - the first critical event of … The precipitation also greatly varies, as the north receives significantly more rainfall than the south. History and Ethnic Relations Emergence of the Nation. These have elevations ranging from about 600 to 1,500 feet (180 to 460 metres) and are crossed by secondary ranges trending north-south. Tunisia - History 3; Refine by. Piracy remains the chief purpose and main source of income of all these Turkish settlements along the Barbary coast. The vegetation and animal life of the country are affected by these erratic climatic conditions. As a result, some 200,000 Spanish Muslims settled in the area of Tunis, in the Majardah valley, and on the Sharīk Peninsula in the north, bringing with them their urban culture and more advanced agricultural and irrigation techniques. Founded by the Arabs in the year 670, Kairouan in Arabic means ‘military camp’. On the pretext that Tunisians had encroached on Algerian territory, France invaded Tunisia in 1881 and imposed the Treaty of Bardo, which sanctioned French military occupation of Tunisia, transferred to France the bey’s authority over finance and foreign relations, and provided for the appointment of a French resident minister as intermediary in all matters of common interest. Kairouan. This is a whole app is very easy to use. Drainage. A single major city, Tunis, dominated the countryside both politically and culturally. Aside from these and from the plains of the Haute Steppe region, where some clay soils of medium fertility may be found, soils in the rest of the country tend to be rocky or sandy. March 20, 1956, is Independence Day, when Tunisia gained its independence fromFrance. 11,274,000), 63,378 sq mi (164,150 sq km), NW Africa. Category:History of Tunisia | Military Wiki | Fandom. During the 8th and 9th centuries BC, the Phoenicians became the first of the many civilizations to leave their mark on Tunisia. The climate of the country, similar to the topography, is greatly varied. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. This status was achieved, for example, under the ʿAbbāsids in the 9th century and later under the Ottomans. But before reaching this square of pure blue sky, it received, from a multitude of windows, all the smoke, the smells, and the gossip of our neighbours. Ichkeul National Park, in the northernmost part of the country, was named a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1980. The most famous people of the ancient world to mark the area of modern-day Tunisia were the Phoenicians, who settled here in the 1st millennium BCE and went on to found their legendary capital of Carthage. Now a well-heeled northern suburb... Roman Rebirth. This book examines the history of Tunisia from the mid-nineteenth century to the present with an emphasis on political, social, economic and cultural developments. According to Greek legend, Dido, a princess of Tyre, was the first outsider to settle among the native tribes of what is now Tunisia when she founded the city of Carthage in the 9th century bce. Search This wiki This wiki All wikis | Sign In Don't have an account? List View List. Ruins of the ancient baths at Carthage, Tunisia. Saved from en.wikipedia.org. We'll give it a try. The history of early Tunisia and its indigenous inhabitants, the Berbers, is obscure prior to the founding of Carthage by seafaring Phoenicians from Tyre (in present-day Lebanon) in the 9th century BC .A great mercantile state developed at Carthage (near modern-day Tunis), which proceeded to dominate the western Mediterranean world. This great ethnic diversity is still seen in the variety of Tunisian family names. Tunisia is briefly taken in 1534 by the most famous corsair of them all, Khair ed-Din (known to the Europeans as Barbarossa). It can be argued that Tunisia’s location is strategic because … Berber, the earlier language of the Maghrib, survived in Tunisia in only a few pockets, mainly in the extreme south. Throughout its recorded history, the physical features and environment of the land of Tunisia have remained fairly constant, although during ancient times more abundant forests grew in the north, and earlier in prehistory the Sahara to the south was not an arid desert. The kitchen, half of it roofed over and the rest an open courtyard, was a long vertical passage toward the light. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. That name, in turn, comes from the Roman word for Africa and the name also given by the Romans to their first African colony following the Punic Wars against the Carthaginians in 264–146 bce. Omissions? The variation in climate leads to the great diversity of ecoregions in Tunisia. Tunisia’s most fertile soils are found in the well-watered intermontane valleys in the north, where rich sandy clay soils formed from alluvium or soils high in lime content cover the valley bottoms and plains. Slowly this city became stronger. Aḥmad abolished slavery and took other modernizing steps intended to bring Tunisia more in line with Europe, but he also exposed his country to Europe’s infinitely greater economic and political power. Tunisia’s culture is highly diverse, in part because of long periods of Ottoman and then French rule but also because populations of Jews and Christians have lived among a Muslim majority for centuries. The area was ruled by a succession of Islamic dynasties and empires until coming under French colonial rule in the late 19th century. For a more detailed treatment of earlier periods and of the country in its regional context, see North Africa. Ḥusayn Bey even accepted the idea that Tunisian princes would rule the cities of Constantine and Oran. Carthage was a Phoenician city-state on the coast of North Africa (the site of modern-day Tunis) which, prior the conflict with Rome known as the Punic Wars (264-146 BCE), was the largest, most affluent, and powerful political entity in the Mediterranean.The city was originally known as Kart-hadasht (new city) to distinguish it from the older Phoenician city of Utica nearby. One name looms above all in Tunisia's history: Carthage. Tunisia's geographical location has meant that many different peoples have entered and dominated the country. More easily controlled from within than any other Maghrib country, Tunisia was also more open to the influence of people and ideas from abroad. Most visited articles. Tunisia’s security was directly threatened in 1835, when the Ottoman Empire deposed the ruling dynasty in Libya and reestablished direct Ottoman rule. Dec 15, 2015 - Lamine Bey, first king and last bey of Tunisia. Tunisia is characterized by moderate relief. From that time until the establishment of the French protectorate in 1881, Tunisian rulers had to placate the larger powers while working to strengthen the state from within. Tunisia was called Ifrīqiyyah in the early centuries of the Islamic period. In time the Carthaginians built an empire in the Mediterranean. The emerging Roman Empire was not happy with these events, and 128 years of Punic Wars ensued. However, enemies from within and European intrigues from without conspired to force him from office. More acceptable were Aḥmad’s steps to integrate Arabic-speaking native Tunisians fully into the government, which had long been dominated by mamlūks (military slaves) and Turks. Generally, from mid-autumn to mid-spring, when three-fourths of the annual total occurs, northern Tunisia receives more than 16 inches of rainfall, and the steppe region receives from 4 to 16 inches (100 to 400 mm). By the beginning of the 19th century, virtually all of its inhabitants spoke Arabic. Although the Arabs initially unified North Africa, by 1230 a separate Tunisian dynasty had been established by the Ḥafṣids. Between the limestone peaks of the central Tunisian Dorsale and the mountains of the Northern Tell—which include the sandstone ridges of the Kroumirie Mountains in the northwest that reach elevations of 3,000 feet (900 metres)—and the Mogods, a mountain range running along the deeply indented coastline to the north, lies the Majardah (Medjerda) River valley, formed by a series of ancient lake basins covered with alluvium. However, throughout the centuries Tunisia has received various waves of immigration that have included Phoenicians, sub-Saharan Africans, Jews, Romans, Vandals, and Arabs; Muslim refugees from Sicily settled in Al-Sāḥil after their homeland was captured by the Normans in 1091. Tunisia is one of the … (Page of tag Tunisia) When the principal minister, Muṣṭafā Khaznadār (who had served from the earliest days of Aḥmad Bey’s reign), attempted to squeeze more taxes out of the hard-pressed peasants, the countryside rose in a revolt (1864). The climate can be divided into two major areas, the north, influenced by the Mediterranean, and the south, influenced by the Saharan desert. Dec 15, 2015 - Lamine Bey, first king and last bey of Tunisia. The history of Tunisia reveals this rich past where different successive Mediterranean cultures had a strong presence. It is important as a winter sanctuary for such birds as the greylag goose, coot, and wigeon. The next bey, Muḥammad (1855–59), tried to ignore Europe, but this was no longer possible. That name, in turn, comes from the Roman word for Africa and the name also given by the Romans to their … Yet, Tunisia proved to be as vulnerable economically as it was militarily. In Tunisia, women can pass on their names and nationalities to their children. Aḥmad Bey, who ruled from 1837 to 1855, was an avowed modernizer and reformer. Author of. Amounts are also highly irregular from one year to another, and irregularity increases southward toward the desert. Like much of North Africa, Tunisia's history is one littered with conquests that completely changed the country's path. The most notable immigration was that of the Spanish Moors (Muslims), which began after the fall of Sevilla (Seville), Spain, as a result of the Reconquista in 1248 and which turned into a veritable exodus in the early 17th century. Carthage Must Be Destroyed:… by Richard Miles. Though sympathetic to the need for reforms, Muḥammad was too weak either to control his own government or to keep the European powers at bay. The first Punic War between Carthage an… Farming methods reached the Nile Valley from the Fertile Crescent region about 5000 BC, and spread to the Maghreb by about 4000 BC. However, Tunisia remained an authoritarian state with an all-powerful ruling party and no significant institutions of representative government. Stone-age to the modern age in two and a half minutes? Book Description. Roman Africa, for example, was the most intensively Christianized portion of North Africa, and Ifrīqiyyah was later more quickly and more thoroughly Islamicized. Temperatures at Sousse average 44 °F (7 °C) in January and 89 °F (32 °C) in August. The Romans ruled and settled in North Africa until the 5th century, when the Roman Empire fell and... From Arab Center to French Protectorate. By the sixth and fifth centuries B.C., the great city-state of Carthage (derived from the Phoenician name for “new city”) dominated much of the western Mediterranean. This warmth, joined with the country’s renowned hospitality and cuisine, has contributed greatly to Tunisia’s growing popularity as a destination for tourists from throughout Europe and the Americas. Tunisia has a very unique location. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.

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